Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonosis. The main sources are cattle, sheep and goats but they do not infect dogs. Oncly Brucella Canis can infect your dog and humans without much symptoms. In 1966 only B. Canis was discovered in a Beagle kennel.
B. canis is the causative agent of dog's brucellosis, which causes contagious abortion, orchiepididymitis, and uveitis. Transmission to human requires close contact with infected animals or bacterial cultures. Symptomatic human infections are rare, probably because of the low virulence of B. canis; 31 human cases have been reported by Madkour MM. Brucellosis: overview. In: Madkour MM, editor. Brucellosis. 2nd edition. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2001. p. 165–78. [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
In principle, brucellosis is a systemic general disease. Symptoms include fluctuating fever, anorexia, emaciation, sweating, joint pain and depression. In addition to acute infections, there are subacute and chronic forms. The bacteria enters the body through broken skin, mucous membranes, the mouth, or the respiratory tract.
In contrast to other Brucella species, which are pathogenic for humans (B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis) and yield smooth colonies, B. canis colonies are naturally rough. Therefore, Bionote Brucella tests that are very useful in diagnosing B. canis infections.
Humans usually become infected through contact with infected dogs. Bacteria can also be transmitted through contact with aborted fetuses, placentas, membranes or amniotic fluid from infected female dogs. Brucellosis is rare in the US, but occurs more frequently in Mexico.
- Causative agent : Brucella abort, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Brucella canis
- Incubation period: 1 week to 7 months
- Why report: Identification and quaratine contaminated dogs and kennels.
Canine Brucella Case study
A 35-year-old male laboratory worker studying Brucella Canis had recurrent fever, headache, arthralgia, weakness, and constipatio during one month.
The man had been handling a culture of live B. canis M- and was using no personal protection. He develloped swollen lymph nodes located in the neck (cervical adenomegaly), and laboratory tests indicated a mild increase of hepatic enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase 46 μ/L and alanine aminotransferase 65 μ/L) and neutropenia.
His blood cultures indicated a Brucella canis presence. Conventional tests for antibodies to smooth brucellae (agglutination, complement fixation) yielded negative results. In contrast, slide agglutination for B. canis was strongly positive with undiluted serum and was also positive at 1:10 dilution. Serologic tests for hepatotropic viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were negative.
Treatement of a human with B. Canis
Oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice a day for 42 days, plus parenteral gentamicin, 180 mg once a day for 10 days and Vitamin B12 administration 3000% every second day.
Blood from Positive dogs should be handelled in biological safety cabinet, personal protection including goggles, gloves and mask, and autoclaving of contaminated material.